Numbness of feet in Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetes can be harmful for nerves and may cause nerve damage. This condition is known as peripheral neuropathy or diabetic neuropathy. Nerves, on the other hand, are specialized form of tissues in brain that conduct messages from brain to other parts of body. Nerves play vital role in nervous coordination which eventually controls and regulate …

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Techniques for Cell immobilization

Cell immobilization

Introduction Cell immobilization is the process of encapsulation of cells in culture in some polymeric material to keep cells viable and useful for a longer duration for biochemical processes.  The matrix material traps or encapsulate the cells  so they cannot enter the mobile phase in bioreactor. The product remains isolated from the cells that produce …

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Mechanism of Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis

The rate of chemical reaction is enhanced by the enzymatic action on substrate molecule, a process named as enzyme catalysis. Enzyme catalysis is vital for certain biochemical reactions in cells as without the enzymatic actions the original rate of reaction is too low. Enzymes reduced the activation energy of reaction so that more molecules are …

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Symptoms of celiac disease

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder that mainly affects the cells of small intestine. Its association with other autoimmune diseases and in diabetes mellitus type 2 is also observed. The symptoms are those related to gastrointestinal problems. This disease occurs as permanent intestinal problem in response to reaction of dietary gluten. Human small intestine …

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Receptors for immune system

Receptors of immune system

Introduction Receptors for innate immune system are specialized proteins that recognize foreign particles and the pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, the innate immune system generate specific responses in response to these receptor proteins, either itself or by activating the cells of adaptive immune system. The innate immune system of body comprises of certain type of cells and …

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Enzyme specificity and mechanism of enzyme action

Enzyme specificity

Enzyme specificity describes the tendency of an enzyme to catalyze a specify biochemical reaction by binding to specific substrate. Enzymes are specific for the type of reaction that they catalyze. For example, the digestive enzymes break down the macromolecular food particle into small digestible particles. Trypsin enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of proteins. Amylase enzyme catalyzes …

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Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Ab) are glycoprotein molecules produced by the plasma cells in response to immunogen that may be any foreign particle. These are called as immunoglobulins as they consist of globular proteins in their structure. Basic structure of immunoglobulin Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains in which two are light and …


Symptoms of postpartum depression

Postpartum depression

Having a baby, being a mother for the first time can trigger and jumble up powerful emotions in women, from joy, excitement to tension. And one more thing, which most of us don’t think that a women can have after having a baby, is postpartum (after delivery) depression (PPD). Most of the time, the women …

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Sjogren's syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome is an auto immune disorder and mainly affects the moisture-producing cells and glands of body. The disease is characterized by dry mouth, eyes, and skin and vaginal dryness. Numbness of muscles, gastric ulcer and joint pain and lymphoma are other symptoms. This disease affects the mucous membrane and moisture-secreting of eyes and mouth …

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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Introduction Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a biotechnological technique which amplifies a  particular sequence of DNA and produces millions of copies of specific gene sequence. Kary Mullis developed this technique in 1938. The basic principle of this technique is that the DNA replicates itself with the help of polymerase enzyme using its bases and the …

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Cancerous white blood cells in leukemia


Leukemia is type of blood cancer which affects the blood cells usually the white blood cells and bone marrow. White blood cells are integral part of immune system and the bone marrow is where blood cells are made. People with leukemia have large number of abnormal white blood cells. These abnormal cells develop rapidly and …


History of animal cell culture

Introduction “The process by which the cells are grown outside the body of organism, in artificial environment as in laboratory is termed as cell culturing and the cells are termed as cell culture.” In laboratory for experimental and research purpose, the researcher grow cells under certain specific conditions. These are temperature, pH, concentration of certain …

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Lung cancer treatment options

Lung cancer (part 2)

Lung cancer treatment or therapy depends on the stage of cancer and varies from person to person. Sometimes doctors perform combined therapies for curing cancer. The theray may have two purposes: Curative: These are for the purpose of cure and treatment of lung cancer. Palliative: if the cancer become malignant as in stage 4, treatment …

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tumor formation in lung cancer

Lung cancer (Part 1)

Lung cancer is a medical condition in which abnormal cells grow and develop in the lungs, the organs used for breathing. These abnormal cells divide, and the increase in the number of cells leads to growths called tumors. The abnormal cells cause harm to the body as they grow and spread. There are two types …

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Genome editing by CRISPR technique


CRISPR technique is powerful tool for genome editing. It serves the purpose of genome alteration or modification. Cas9 protein is an enzyme which acts a molecular scissor for cutting and editing the genome sequence. The potential applications of CRISPR technique include correcting and modifying gene defects, treatment and prevention of disease to pass on to …