In the realm of nutrition, it often feels like the rules are continually changing. We hear that eggs are beneficial, then detrimental. Red meat is demonized, then cautiously recommended. The butter ban is lifted, only to be reinstated. It’s no wonder 80% of individuals find nutritional advice confusing, as per a survey by the International Food Information Council Foundation. With misinformation rampant on social networks and persuasive food marketing strategies, the confusion only deepens.
However, despite the ever-changing nutritional landscape, there is a surprising amount of consensus among experts. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to healthy eating, cutting through the noise to present the science-backed consensus on nutrition and explore the areas where scientists are still seeking answers.
The General Agreement on Healthy Eating
1. Prioritize Plant-Based Foods
The benefits of a plant-rich diet are well-documented. Research consistently shows that a diet heavy in plant foods can improve health markers such as blood pressure, triglyceride levels, glucose, and waist circumference, which can lead to a reduced risk of diseases like heart disease and diabetes.
A recent study analyzed various eating patterns, from strict vegan diets to semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets, to assess their impact on health predictors. The study concluded that a strict vegan diet yielded the healthiest biomarkers and the lowest levels of unhealthy markers. Vegetarians who consumed eggs, dairy, and/or fish came next, while the non-vegetarian group showed the least favorable health markers.
Plant-based eating is not new. Research over decades indicates that a plant-focused diet can counter many health challenges that develop over time. No matter what type of dietary pattern you follow, at least 75% of your plate should include a mix of vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, pulses, and whole grains.
2. Limit Red and Processed Meats
Despite some contradictory headlines, the bulk of scientific evidence advises limiting or avoiding red and processed meats. Criticism arose from a study that suggested otherwise, but if you’re looking to decrease your chances of premature death from causes such as heart disease and cancer, it’s prudent to moderately consume red meat.
The case against processed meat raises more concern. Frank B. Hu, MD, Professor and Chair, Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, stated that higher intake of processed meat leads to a higher risk of chronic diseases and mortality. While there’s no confirmed ‘safe’ amount, infrequent consumption (once or twice a month) is unlikely to significantly impact your health.
3. Opt for Healthy Fats and Carbs
In the battle of fats vs. carbs, the victor is health. Both a low-fat, high-carb diet and a high-fat, low-carb diet can be healthy if you choose your fats and carbs wisely. Carbs from vegetables, starchy vegetables, fruits, and pulses, which supply antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and fiber, are vastly different from overly processed carbs, which offer little nutritional value.
There’s consensus that fat isn’t the enemy and that fats from plant and fish sources provide anti-inflammatory benefits. Inflammation within the body can contribute to numerous diseases, including mood disorders, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. While butter and other saturated fats may not be as harmful as once believed, anti-inflammatory fats, when consumed with foods that reduce inflammation, can contribute to a healthier life.
4. Choose Whole or Minimally Processed Foods
There’s almost unanimous agreement that reducing your intake of heavily processed foods and favoring whole or minimally processed foods is beneficial. Heavily processed foods, including processed meats, refined grains, and many snacks and sweets, promote inflammation, leading to disease. Diets high in such foods are associated with higher body weights and poorer health.
Whenever possible, opt for whole or minimally processed foods. Check ingredient lists and make healthier swaps for foods high in sodium, sugar, artificial sweeteners, colors, and preservatives, which often indicate heavy processing. This doesn’t mean you have to forego convenience. Minimally processed foods can simplify meal prep and are nutritionist-approved.
5. Personalize Your Diet
Healthy eating doesn’t look the same for everyone. Any individual can benefit from a variety of eating patterns if they focus on the principles above. Eating is a deeply personal experience, involving more than just fueling your body. Food can evoke memories, be an integral part of social and religious events, and elicit emotional responses, providing comfort, stress relief, or joy.
Understanding what a meal means to you and your non-negotiables (the foods you won’t give up) can guide you towards a dietary approach that you can sustain. Recognize that different eating patterns suit different situations, but only if you can adhere to them. Nourishing your body is a commitment, not a passing phase. Determine the eating pattern that suits you best and strive to maintain it as healthily as possible.
Areas of Uncertainty in Nutrition
While we have a degree of consensus on many aspects of nutrition, there are areas where the science is still evolving.
1. Overemphasis on Individual Nutrients
Many health recommendations focus on reducing specific nutrients and emphasizing others. However, you don’t consume a nutrient like fiber in isolation. Reductionist health recommendations can be misleading.
For instance, our Dietary Guidelines suggest limiting saturated fat, linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Therefore, you might eliminate full-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese from your diet. However, studies have shown that the saturated fats from these foods aren’t as harmful as once believed.
A recent meta-analysis found no link between total dairy consumption, milk consumption, and an increased risk of death or heart disease. In contrast, cheese, high in both saturated fat and sodium, was associated with a slightly lower risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
2. Weight Loss Strategies
With obesity rates predicted to reach nearly 50% of the population by 2030, we’re still grappling with how to tailor dietary advice to help people lose weight sustainably. A study by Stanford University researchers attempted to determine if individuals with certain genetic traits would lose weight more effectively on a low-fat or low-carb diet. The results varied widely, reinforcing that no single eating pattern is superior for weight loss.
3. Personalized Nutrition
While marketers may lead you to believe that personalizing your diet based on your microbiome or genetics is the key to optimal health, the science is lagging. We know that diet can alter your microbiome, but other factors like age, sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, lifestyle, and medications also influence the microbiome, making it challenging to develop a personalized nutrition plan.
According to a recent review study, personalized nutritional strategies need to be more feasible and sustainable to optimize one’s gut microbiome and improve host responsiveness. Currently, 53% of doctors believe this technology needs another five or ten years to become standard practice, according to a new survey.
The Concept of Mindful Eating
Beyond the realm of what we eat is the matter of how we eat it. Enter the practice of mindful eating. This approach, rooted in the ancient philosophy of mindfulness, involves intentional focus on one’s thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations in the present moment. Mindful eating involves using all your senses to experience and enjoy the food choices you make.
What is Mindful Eating?
Mindful eating focuses on experiencing your food, body-related sensations, and thoughts and feelings about food with increased awareness and without judgment. Attention is given to the foods being chosen, internal and external physical cues, and your responses to those cues.
- Considers the broader aspect of the meal: where the food came from, how it was prepared, and who prepared it.
- Notices internal and external cues that affect how much we eat.
- Observes how the food looks, tastes, smells, and feels as we eat.
- Recognizes how the body feels after eating the meal.
- Expresses gratitude for the meal.
- May use deep breathing or meditation before or after the meal.
- Reflects on how our food choices affect our local and global environment.
Seven Practices of Mindful Eating
- Honor the food: Acknowledge where the food was grown and who prepared the meal. Eat without distractions to enhance the eating experience.
- Engage all senses: Notice the sounds, colors, smells, tastes, and textures of the food and how you feel when eating. Pause periodically to engage these senses.
- Serve in modest portions: This can help avoid overeating and food waste. Use a dinner plate no larger than 9 inches across and fill it only once.
- Savor small bites, and chew thoroughly: These practices can help slow down the meal and fully experience the food’s flavors.
- Eat slowly to avoid overeating: If you eat slowly, you are more likely to recognize when you are feeling satisfied, or when you are about 80% full, and can stop eating.
- Don’t skip meals: Going too long without eating increases the risk of intense hunger, which may lead to unhealthful food choices. Setting meals at around the same time each day, as well as planning enough time to enjoy a meal or snack, reduces these risks.
- Eat a plant-based diet, for your health and for the planet: Consider the long-term effects of eating certain foods. Processed meat and saturated fat are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer and heart disease. Production of animal-based foods like meat and dairy takes a heavier toll on our environment than plant-based foods.
From SAVOR: Mindful Eating, Mindful Life 
The Impact of Mindful Eating
Mindless or distracted eating, the antithesis of mindful eating, has been linked to anxiety, overeating, and weight gain. Examples of mindless eating include eating while driving, working, or watching TV or other screens.
Intervention studies have shown that mindfulness approaches can be an effective tool in treating unfavorable behaviors such as emotional eating and binge eating that can lead to weight gain and obesity, although weight loss as an outcome measure is not always seen.
Mindful eating can also lead to higher diet quality. For example, you might choose fruit instead of sweets as a snack, or opt for smaller serving sizes of calorie-dense foods.
Mindful eating is an approach that can complement any eating pattern. By combining behavioral strategies like mindfulness training with nutritional knowledge, individuals can make healthier food choices, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, promote more enjoyable meal experiences, and support a healthy body image.
Mindful Eating During COVID-19
As COVID-19 lockdowns began, reports of food stockpiling and increased emotional eating due to the pandemic’s stressors fueled concerns that adults might increase their overall food intake during extended isolation, leading to weight gain. The loss of social eating opportunities could also reduce mindful eating practices, negatively influencing food choice and promoting overeating.
To counter these potential issues, individuals can incorporate mindful eating strategies into their daily lives, such as scheduling times to eat, asking themselves if they are truly hungry or just bored or stressed, and eating mindfully, savoring each bite.
Note about eating disorders: The COVID-19 pandemic may raise unique challenges for individuals with eating disorders. Mindful eating is not intended to replace traditional treatments for severe clinical conditions such as these. If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, you can call the National Eating Disorders Association Helpline at 1-800-931-2237, or text “NEDA” to 741-741.
Note about food insecurity: Many individuals may be facing food shortages due to unemployment or other issues related to the pandemic. If you’re struggling to access enough food to keep yourself or your family healthy, there are several options to help. Learn more about navigating supplemental food resources.
In conclusion, while there is a lot of conflicting advice about healthy eating, there is also a lot of consensus. Emphasizing plant foods, limiting red and processed meats, focusing on healthy fats and carbs, and eating mostly whole or minimally processed foods are all recommended. What’s more, tailoring your diet to your individual needs and practicing mindful eating can enhance your relationship with food and improve your overall health.