the world is getting short of antibiotics the multidrug resistant organisms

The world is getting short of antibiotics!

The uncontrolled and frequent use of antibiotics even for treatment of common infections has given rise to antimicrobial resistance AMR and the microbes are termed as multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO’s). Multidrug resistance is a global issue and a threat to health care. The emergence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO’s) results in complications in normal treatment …

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radioimmunoassay RIA for detection of immune complexes in given sample

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

Radioimmunoassay is an assay technique for detection and estimation of immune molecule complexes, antibodies, hormones and related substances from a given sample. This is sensitive and specific in vitro technique for research work laboratories. Because of the fact that this technique involves using radioactive isotopes, one needs great expertise to use this technique. Another example …

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Research areas in plant biotechnology

Research areas in plant biotechnology

Biotechnology refers to manipulation of living organisms and their systems for manufacturing products. These are eventually for the betterment of humanity. Plant biotechnology is the sub-discipline which involves adding desired traits in plants. Moreover, it involves the research and manipulation of plant’s natural abilities. No doubt that plants will be a way much better source …

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Medicinal plants for cancer treatment

Medicinal plants for cancer treatment

Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases killing a large number of people worldwide. Over the course of year, scientists have identified the molecular basis of cancer.Despite considerable efforts, cancer persists to be an aggressive killer worldwide. Hence a constant demand is required to develop new, efficacious and affordable methods to treat this disease.  Chemotherapy, …

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serial analysis for gene expression technique and applications

Serial analysis of gene expression

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a technique used to provide a library of the mRNA sequences (transcripts) of the sample in the form of small tag sequences or the express sequence tags (EST), each of which correspond to a particular transcript. EST is short sequences of DNA. These are useful for identifying the …

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ELISA technique a valuable research tool

ELISA technique

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA is an assay technique of biotechnology for detection of various enzymes, proteins, antibodies and hormones. The detection is based on antigen-antibody interactions. Antigen molecules are immobilized on surface of 96 wells polystyrene plate. Adding antibody solution on plate results in antigen-antibody complexes. Assessing the activity of conjugate enzyme (attached with …

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DNA sequencing technique and applications

DNA sequencing

What is DNA sequencing? ”DNA sequencing is a technique of biotechnology to determine the genome sequence with precise nucleotide order within it.” Determination of precise sequence and order of DNA bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine is performed. The purpose is to analyze and compare the genetic makeup of individuals. Moreover, it has significance in …

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Plantibodies for therapeutic purposes

Plantibodies

As the name suggests, plantibodies are class of antibodies, which are derived and generated in plants. Although mammalian cells are main source of engineered antibodies production, yet plants also can serve the same purpose as well. Plant biotechnologists aims to manipulate the natural abilities of plants for production of engineered antibodies for therapeutic purposes. Why …

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Mechanism of epigenetic modifications

Epigenetics

Epigenetic modifications are stable heritable traits or phenotypes other than those which are based on genomic sequences. There are dynamic event that modulate the gene expression. These are functionally relevant changes and modifications of genome that excludes modifications of nucleotide sequences. For example, the mechanisms of histone modifications, DNA methylation, acetylation etc that effect the …

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bacterial transformation and selection of cells

Bacterial transformation and selection

Transformation is a basic technique of biotechnology to develop transformed cells (bacterial, plant or animal cell) containing a foreign DNA fragment in their genome. The foreign DNA incorporates in cellular genome in such a way that genes of foreign DNA express themselves. Therefore, the organism or cell is termed as transformed cell. Consequently, the transformed …

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The history of genetics

History of genetics

 The study of inheritance of traits from organism to its offspring and the way these traits are inherited is termed as genetics. It includes study of hereditary matter DNA, its genes and also the variations in genetic material of the organisms. The concept of evolution and the natural selection of species as proposed by Darwin …

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Various types of Recombinant antibodies

Recombinant antibodies

The B cells of adapted immune system produces antibodies or immunoglobin molecules in response to foreign antigens. The emergence of recombinant DNA technology in 1970’s has led to the production of ‘engineered or recombinant’ antibodies (rAbs). Initially researchers tried their best for production of humanized antibodies and fragmentation of these Abs and it resulted in …

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Significance of autophagy

Autophagy

Autophagy is the controlled digestion and degradation of damaged and old cell and its components. Form the Greek origin, “auto” mean “self” and “phagein” refers to “eat”. In the process, the cell can digest its own components by enclosing them in a membrane forming sac-like vesicles. These are later transported to lysosome. Lysosome  is the …

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