resting membrane potential

Resting membrane potential

The potential of neuron, generated in its resting state, when there is no conduction of nerve impulse through it, is termed as resting membrane potential. On average its value is -70mV that is because the inside of neuron has less K+ ions compared to higher concentration of Na+ ions outside it and thus it makes …

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Thermoregulation in endotherms

Thermoregulation in endotherms

Endotherms regulate and maintain their internal body temperature within a homeostatic range. This phenomenon is termed as thermoregulation. These mechanisms vary according to the requirements. For instance, these are either for heat production or heat loss to maintain the internal body temperature of the organisms. How endotherms behave and what basic strategies they adapt for …

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Endotherms and energy production

Temperature relations of endotherms

In birds and mammals which are homeothermic endotherms, there body temperature is regulated closely by homeostatic mechanisms. These mechanisms regulate loss of heat and heat production. Thus, they maintain constant body temperature, independent that of temperature of environment. In endotherms, the core temperatures are reserved constant between 37°C-38°C in mammals and 40°C for birds. On …

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Heterotherms and temperature maintenance

Temperature relations of heterotherms

Animals cope with fluctuations in temperature by different ways. One of the basic ways is by generating and trapping the heat internally in order to maintain constant body temperature despite of the different changes in the external environment. Organisms can be heterotherms, endotherms or ectotherms depending on from where they get heat and how they …

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ELISA technique a valuable research tool

ELISA technique

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA is an assay technique of biotechnology for detection of various enzymes, proteins, antibodies and hormones. The detection is based on antigen-antibody interactions. Antigen molecules are immobilized on surface of 96 wells polystyrene plate. Adding antibody solution on plate results in antigen-antibody complexes. Assessing the activity of conjugate enzyme (attached with …

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Ebola virus symptoms and treatment

Ebola virus

Zaire Ebolavirus or commonly known Ebola virus belongs to genus ebolavirus. It causes severe and fatal Ebola virus disease or Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans. Primarily, animals spread this virus to humans and later human to human interaction spreads it to others. The average mortality rate is 50%. However, this percentage rose up to 90% …

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DNA sequencing technique and applications

DNA sequencing

What is DNA sequencing? ”DNA sequencing is a technique of biotechnology to determine the genome sequence with precise nucleotide order within it.” Determination of precise sequence and order of DNA bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine is performed. The purpose is to analyze and compare the genetic makeup of individuals. Moreover, it has significance in …

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Nutritional biochemistry and metabolism

Nutritional biochemistry

The branch of science that interprets or explains the relationship of food with the functioning of living system is nutritional biochemistry. Nutrition refers to all kind of nourishment that is helpful for sustainability of life. The study of nutrient requirement and the diet that provides these nutrients is also termed as nutrition. So, the nutrition …

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bacterial transformation and selection of cells

Bacterial transformation and selection

Transformation is a basic technique of biotechnology to develop transformed cells (bacterial, plant or animal cell) containing a foreign DNA fragment in their genome. The foreign DNA incorporates in cellular genome in such a way that genes of foreign DNA express themselves. Therefore, the organism or cell is termed as transformed cell. Consequently, the transformed …

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Various types of Recombinant antibodies

Recombinant antibodies

The B cells of adapted immune system produces antibodies or immunoglobin molecules in response to foreign antigens. The emergence of recombinant DNA technology in 1970’s has led to the production of ‘engineered or recombinant’ antibodies (rAbs). Initially researchers tried their best for production of humanized antibodies and fragmentation of these Abs and it resulted in …

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Genetic mutations and types

Genetic mutations

Genetic mutations are spontaneous changes occurring in the genetic material, (DNA) of an individual. Mutations can be passed to the next generations or may not, depending upon the type of cell in which they occur. They can be harmful, beneficial or even neutral. Usually these are caused naturally but they can be caused by harmful …

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