humanized antibody production

Humanized antibody

Humanized antibody is derived from a non-human source. For the purpose, the gene sequences are modified so as they resemble closely to naturally occurring Ab’s in humans. Humanization is the process of development of monoclonal antibodies involving a non-human source such as murin. The monoclonal antibodies (Ab against one specific antigen) produced by this method …


antibody engineering and therapeutics

Antibody engineering

 Antibodies are immunoglobin molecules produced by the B cells of adapted immune system that recognize particular antigen and are responsible for its removal from body. The antibody molecule unique and highly specific for the type of antigen to which it recognizes and binds. The emergence of recombinant DNA technology in 1970’s has led to the …


interleukin polymorphism & alzheimers

Interleukin genes & Alzheimer

Alzheimer is a neurological disorder and a type of dementia. Dementia on the other hand is memory loss which gets worst with the passage of time and it affects the memory and the intellectual abilities of the affected person. The disease has genetic basis as well as environmental influences. One of the genetic factors is …


solution to vocal disability

Lab-grown vocal cords

Voice is an astonishing gift and no doubt a blessing to express ourselves and the main source of communication. Unfortunately, some of us are deprived of this blessing and have vocal disability. A person may have this speaking disability either by birth or due to some surgery or injury. Researchers were trying to find ways …


nerveagents effects on neurotransmitter

Nerve agents

Nerve agents or nerve gases are actually the dirty dark secret of scientific development and a threat to humanity and peace of world. These are chemicals or gases which affect the central nervous system or specifically neurons. This term applies to all chemicals that affect nervous system by disrupting neurotransmitter molecules.  Gerhard Schrader accidentally formed …


autoimmune disease- allergy

Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune allergic disorders are common in people and are due to problem with immune system. Immune system is the major defense mechanism of body of organism comprising of specialized cells and systems that provide resistance to disease. The main function of immune system is protection of body by removal and elimination of pathogens and the …


genetically modified organisms

Genetically Modified Organisms

Animals have always been fascinating to human beings and animal breeding is one of the aims of human for several purposes. As animals inherit their genetic properties to their offspring, this creates bases of genetic selection of the animals with desired properties. Many of the plant and animal species have become dependent on these man-made …



What are plant based bio polymers?

Polymeric bio molecules produced by the living organisms are termed as bio polymers. In a polymeric structure, the monomers join together by some kind of bonding such as covalent bond. Bio polymers are of two types: Naturally occurring that includes silk, pectin, rubber, DNA and Proteins Synthetic Bio polymers such as polyethylene, Teflon, epoxy and …


transgenic plants


Cancer being one of the deadliest diseases is the major public health concern worldwide. Cancer belongs to class of disease characterized by abnormal cell growth with its potential to spread or invade other cells in body. These abnormal extra cells often form a mass of tissue, termed as tumor. These cells generally originate from a …


nano biotechnology in agriculture


Nanotechnology is scientific approach for material usage and manipulation done at molecular level in chemical and physical properties. This is similar to biotechnology and genetic engineering level except for its minuet nano level.Nanotechnology in agriculture is for manipulating genetic and molecular processes for development of product and for agriculture as it is the backbone of …