BRCA gene mutation and links to breast cancer

BRCA gene

Gene is a particular sequence of nucleotide which codes for a protein product. BRCA gene is abbreviation for BReast CAncer gene. BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes have association with developments of breast cancer in humans. Both of BRCA gene prevent cancer development in normal functional state. These are not only tumor suppressor gene but …


Genetic mutations and types

Genetic mutations

Genetic mutations are spontaneous changes occurring in the genetic material, (DNA) of an individual. Mutations can be passed to the next generations or may not, depending upon the type of cell in which they occur. They can be harmful, beneficial or even neutral. Usually these are caused naturally but they can be caused by harmful …


Gene therapy for therapeutic purposes

Gene therapy

Gene therapy is technique of recombinant DNA technology which involves the replacement of faulty or mutated gene with normal one, mainly for the treatment purpose. DNA, as we know is the genetic and hereditary material of cell that determines and control the cellular functioning. Any mutation or sudden change in gene structure leads to loss …


Techniques for Cell immobilization

Cell immobilization

Introduction Cell immobilization is the process of encapsulation of cells in culture in some polymeric material to keep cells viable and useful for a longer duration for biochemical processes.  The matrix material traps or encapsulate the cells  so they cannot enter the mobile phase in bioreactor. The product remains isolated from the cells that produce …


Receptors for immune system

Receptors of immune system

Introduction Receptors for innate immune system are specialized proteins that recognize foreign particles and the pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, the innate immune system generate specific responses in response to these receptor proteins, either itself or by activating the cells of adaptive immune system. The innate immune system of body comprises of certain type of cells and …



Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Ab) are glycoprotein molecules produced by the plasma cells in response to immunogen that may be any foreign particle. These are called as immunoglobulins as they consist of globular proteins in their structure. Basic structure of immunoglobulin Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains in which two are light and …


Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Introduction Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a biotechnological technique which amplifies a  particular sequence of DNA and produces millions of copies of specific gene sequence. Kary Mullis developed this technique in 1938. The basic principle of this technique is that the DNA replicates itself with the help of polymerase enzyme using its bases and the …


History of animal cell culture

Introduction “The process by which the cells are grown outside the body of organism, in artificial environment as in laboratory is termed as cell culturing and the cells are termed as cell culture.” In laboratory for experimental and research purpose, the researcher grow cells under certain specific conditions. These are temperature, pH, concentration of certain …


Genome editing by CRISPR technique


CRISPR technique is powerful tool for genome editing. It serves the purpose of genome alteration or modification. Cas9 protein is an enzyme which acts a molecular scissor for cutting and editing the genome sequence. The potential applications of CRISPR technique include correcting and modifying gene defects, treatment and prevention of disease to pass on to …


the concept of marker free transgenic plants

Marker free transgenic plants

The term transgenic plants applies for those having modified genome by addition of some foreign gene in them. This purpose is to provide the plants with some qualities that are not naturally present in them are to improve the already present qualities. For example, the development of antibiotic resistance in plants is one of the …


epigenetic modification in plants

Epigenetics in plants

Epigenetics is a phenomena that involves changes in activity of genes and their expression. Their basis is alterations in chromosomal structures and not the changes in DNA sequence of the chromosomes. Thus, epigenetics refers to any phenotypic variations that are heritable. Above all, these are not due to alterations of genome sequence such as mutations …


bioremediation techniques

Bioremediation of oil spills

An oil spill is a form of pollution that involves the release of petroleum into the biosphere especially the waterways such as oceans, posing a huge threat to marine life. These spills may occur as a result of a physical harm to oil tankers that the ships carry or  the damage to huge offshore oil …


hemolytic anemia-autoimmune disorder

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which the person’s immune system generates auto-reactive antibodies that destroys the red blood cell of the person leading to lower level of blood cell in body. The life time of normal RBC reduces to just few days instead of normal 120 days. Sometimes when a person gets blood …


biodiversity conservation techniques

Conservation of biodiversity

The term biodiversity refers to diversified species of living organism in ecosystem. The natural species and wild animals are losing their natural habitat due to devastating human activities. Wild life species are that are close to extinction needs to be conserved in order to maintain balance of ecosystem. Role of biotechnology in conservation of biodiversity …


skin cancer and possible immune therapy

Skin cancer immunotherapy

Immunotherapy also known as biological therapy is a method of treatment that uses different parts of person’s immune systems such as special cells, organs or substances that provide protection against various infections to fight against diseases such as skin cancer. In cancer immunotherapy the immune system of body counters with cancer cells. These different rapidly …