Gene therapy for therapeutic purposes

Gene therapy

Gene therapy is technique of recombinant DNA technology which involves the replacement of faulty or mutated gene with normal one, mainly for the treatment purpose. DNA, as we know is the genetic and hereditary material of cell that determines and control the cellular functioning. Any mutation or sudden change in gene structure leads to loss …

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Numbness of feet in Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetes can be harmful for nerves and may cause nerve damage. This condition is known as peripheral neuropathy or diabetic neuropathy. Nerves, on the other hand, are specialized form of tissues in brain that conduct messages from brain to other parts of body. Nerves play vital role in nervous coordination which eventually controls and regulate …

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Mechanism of Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis

The rate of chemical reaction is enhanced by the enzymatic action on substrate molecule, a process named as enzyme catalysis. Enzyme catalysis is vital for certain biochemical reactions in cells as without the enzymatic actions the original rate of reaction is too low. Enzymes reduced the activation energy of reaction so that more molecules are …

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Receptors for immune system

Receptors of immune system

Introduction Receptors for innate immune system are specialized proteins that recognize foreign particles and the pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, the innate immune system generate specific responses in response to these receptor proteins, either itself or by activating the cells of adaptive immune system. The innate immune system of body comprises of certain type of cells and …

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Enzyme specificity and mechanism of enzyme action

Enzyme specificity

Enzyme specificity describes the tendency of an enzyme to catalyze a specify biochemical reaction by binding to specific substrate. Enzymes are specific for the type of reaction that they catalyze. For example, the digestive enzymes break down the macromolecular food particle into small digestible particles. Trypsin enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of proteins. Amylase enzyme catalyzes …

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Immunoglobulins

Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Ab) are glycoprotein molecules produced by the plasma cells in response to immunogen that may be any foreign particle. These are called as immunoglobulins as they consist of globular proteins in their structure. Basic structure of immunoglobulin Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains in which two are light and …

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Sjogren's syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome is an auto immune disorder and mainly affects the moisture-producing cells and glands of body. The disease is characterized by dry mouth, eyes, and skin and vaginal dryness. Numbness of muscles, gastric ulcer and joint pain and lymphoma are other symptoms. This disease affects the mucous membrane and moisture-secreting of eyes and mouth …

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Cancerous white blood cells in leukemia

Leukemia

Leukemia is type of blood cancer which affects the blood cells usually the white blood cells and bone marrow. White blood cells are integral part of immune system and the bone marrow is where blood cells are made. People with leukemia have large number of abnormal white blood cells. These abnormal cells develop rapidly and …

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History of animal cell culture

Introduction “The process by which the cells are grown outside the body of organism, in artificial environment as in laboratory is termed as cell culturing and the cells are termed as cell culture.” In laboratory for experimental and research purpose, the researcher grow cells under certain specific conditions. These are temperature, pH, concentration of certain …

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Lung cancer treatment options

Lung cancer (part 2)

Lung cancer treatment or therapy depends on the stage of cancer and varies from person to person. Sometimes doctors perform combined therapies for curing cancer. The theray may have two purposes: Curative: These are for the purpose of cure and treatment of lung cancer. Palliative: if the cancer become malignant as in stage 4, treatment …

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tumor formation in lung cancer

Lung cancer (Part 1)

Lung cancer is a medical condition in which abnormal cells grow and develop in the lungs, the organs used for breathing. These abnormal cells divide, and the increase in the number of cells leads to growths called tumors. The abnormal cells cause harm to the body as they grow and spread. There are two types …

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Bioenergetics- the study of cellular metabolism

Bioenergetics

Bioenergetics is the scientific study concerned with the flow of energy among organisms at cellular level and is based upon the principles of biochemistry and molecular biology. Energy production in organisms involves certain processes ranging from photosynthesis in plants and that of oxidation metabolism in other organisms like human. Therefore, energy is the essential requirement …

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side effects of fairness creams

Fairness creams side effects

‘Beauty is in the eyes of beholder.’ But the cosmetics brands  will tell you something else, setting their own  ‘standard’ of beauty. This is what our society does as mostly people think that fair skin is the standard of being beautiful. If you have brown or dusky skin, everyone will tell you one or two …

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uses of industrial enzymes

Industrial enzymes

Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the biochemical reactions. For living organism, enzymes are of pivotal importance as without them, the biochemical reactions proceed at very slow rate. Likewise, enzymes also used in commercial applications. Industrial enzymes have wide applications in product manufacturing. Industrial applications of enzymes With the advent of sciences and technology, …

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nerveagents effects on neurotransmitter

Nerve agents

Nerve agents or nerve gases are actually the dirty dark secret of scientific development and a threat to humanity and peace of world. These are chemicals or gases which affect the central nervous system or specifically neurons. This term applies to all chemicals that affect nervous system by disrupting neurotransmitter molecules.  Gerhard Schrader accidentally formed …

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